Emancipation of the Woman Identity in the Documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuanian Principality of Early 16th century Nelė Asadauskienė Summary The goal of this article is to introduce aspects related to the identification of women from the ruling oligarchy families of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by analysing the cases of entering into matrimonial relations by the highest-rank political members during the rule of the Great Duke Alexander. Seeking to comprehend the level of general informativeness, a definitely short period, the years 1492-1506, was chosen for the research. The group surveyed consisted of the members of the Noblemen Council from the Alexander times. The data selected by the statistical and analytical method provide an answer to the fundamental question - to what extent a family woman of the highest material and political status in 1492-1506 is visible to the present day researcher. On the basis of the facts analysed conclusions could be made that there are cases when identification of the family woman in the nobility elite in the early 16th century is still complicated. We encounter three problems: non-identified spouse (no data is provided); only a name is known, but no facts are provided about the family; the family is known, but the name is not known. It is impossible to rectify the situation. Although mentioned in the state documents, a woman remained partially anonymous (mention is made about her in the documents, but she is called after the name of her husband (e.g. Janovaya, Juryevna). Sometimes references are made to her family - the family name is known, however the sources fail to specify her name. These recordings in these documents, as a woman appears only as a daughter, wife (widow), i.e. she is somebody's, therefore her father's or husband's name is more important than her own name. Only if the woman gets married, information about her is continued, since now she is mother, grandmother, great grandmother. More exhaustive data are provided about a woman, if she gives birth to a male descendant and the parentage is extended. In the event a man marries a lower rank woman, the kinsfolk is tended to keep silent about her and her family, whilst in case the woman is of a higher rank, the relatedness according to the maternal side is more emphasized. Frequently, we cannot tell anything about a woman if she remains single. Nevertheless, in late 16th century, as compared with the early 16th century, the records instrumental in identifying a woman are more accurate.
Moters kūnas lietuvių moterų prozoje (XX a. pabaiga) Solveiga DaugirdaitėSantrauka Straipsnyje apžvelgiamas požiūris į kūną XX a. pab. lietuvių moterų prozoje. Autorė teigia, jog lietuvių prozą suformavo moterys rašytojos XIX a. pabaigoje, įsitraukusios į tautinio atgimimo sąjūdį. Jos savo kūrinių herojes vaizdavo siekiančias aukštų dvasinių idealų, savo ir savo šalies gerovės, kovojančias su patriarchaline priespauda (Žemaitė, Šatrijos Ragana, Petkevičaitė-Bitė). Ši tradicija iš esmės buvo tęsiama autorių, į prozininkių gretas įsijungusių pačioje XX a. 9-ojo dešimtmečio pradžioje (Vidmantė Jasukaitytė, Dalia Urnevičiūtė ir kt.). Nuo 9-ojo dešimtmečio vidurio, debiutavus Jurgai Ivanauskaitei, Zitai Čepaitei, Jolitai Skablauskaitei, moterį idealizuojantis vaizdavimas ėmė keistis: kalbant krikščionybės simboliais, „madonas" ėmė keisti „pasileidėlės". Apibendrinant teigiama, jog šiuolaikinių moterų rašytojų herojės yra vaizduojamos kaip nekenčiančios savo moteriškų kūnų (menstruacijos - skausmingos ir žeminančios); kaip „neturinčios motinų", t. y. motinos neminimos arba veikia represyviai; meilė keičiama seksu, kontracepcija neminima. Vaizduojamos herojės - jaunos, bevaikės (gimdymą Z. Čepaitė mini kaip atgrasų per TV matytą reginį). Straipsnyje daroma prielaida, jog daugumos moterų prozos herojų tapatybė sutampa su „moterų žurnalų" siūlomu modeliu, matrilinijiniai literatūriniai ryšiai sunkiai įžvelgiami.
Labour Market and Women in Interwar LithuaniaVirginija JurėnienėSummaryThe Second Seimas was elected May 12-13, 1923. However, there were only three women, i.e. Lithuanian Christian Democrats party (LCDP) members M. Galdikienė and E. Gvildienė and Lithuanian Social democrat party (LSDP) member L. Purėnienė. Although at some points their opinions were at variance, the women parliament members defended some bills, e.g. a bill of State Tax on Service and Business together.The Third Seimas had 4 women: M. Galdikienė and E. Gvildienė were elected for the second tenure, and S. Ladygienė came from the fraction of LCDP and L. Purėnienė from the fraction of LSDP.The women parliament members participated in the discussions on the law most and initiated some laws which later served as the legal basis for making the rights of women and men equal in juridical, economic and social spheres.December 3, 1922 a union of catholic organizations named The Highest secretariat of Lithuanian catholic women - was established in a meeting of catholic women associations. Its goal was not only to unite organizations of the kind but also to give a direction and coordinate the activity of catholic women. In 1933 the representatives of the Highest Secretariat participated in the International Social and Public Union Congress in Paris where the question of women's work in industry was discussed. In 1933 the Secretariat invited the decade congress in Kaunas where the resolution was made to implement fully equal rights for both genders in the family. In 1934 The Highest secretariat of Lithuanian catholic women established a section of intelligent women named Women's Work. Lithuanian Women Council (LWC) was established in 1929. It contained 20 women associations.In 1931 LWC presented the government with a memorandum which demanded to respect equality of both genders when dismissing people. May 2, 1933 the ministers in the attempts to balance the state budget decided to educe the number of the state officials from July 1. At the end of the year 1935 the situation in Lithuanian labour market became even more complicated when the government issued New Employment Decrees for Industrial Workers that forbade women to work night shifts.In 1935 the tension of social relations reached its culmination when The Union of Lithuanian Women with Higher Education addressed the Federation of International Diplomaed Women with a plea to defend women. In September 1935 the Federation presented the General Secretariat of the United Nations with a memorandum which stated that Lithuanian women's opportunities to engage in a professional activity were restricted, and the government's policy disregarded women's talents, education and competence, making them return to the household activities. The memorandum was introduced and discussed at the XVI plenum of the United Nations. In 1939 LWC presented President A. Smetona with another memorandum concerning this question. The memorandum claimed that the women rights were not protected by the Constitution and demanded  inclusion of the representatives of educated women society into the committees. Work groups preparing the laws of labour and social security and in the process of dismissing married women. Besides, LWC claimed participation of educated women in the decision making on dismissal of married women from the public office. The government did not entertain the request. The problem of women dismissal remained unsolved through the1930s. The Women Council did not organize any other initiatives against the government's policy, except memoranda writing. At that time they could not do more. The issues of unemployment were acute all over Europe, and the majority of the unemployed were women.